“Bentonite support fluids are widely used in civil engineering. One of their main uses is to support the sides of panel excavations for diaphragm walls. In this application, the bentonite must be capable of forming a barrier or “filter cake” on the sides of the excavations to prevent loss of fluid into the ground and provide a surface layer against which the pressure of the fluid can act in order to resist external pressures from the soil and groundwater…”.
“Much of the early technology for civil engineering slurries was developed from oil well drilling practice, and many of the test procedures have also been borrowed from the oil industry. Rogers (1988) provides a useful account of oil well drilling fluids and test procedures..”.