Figure ground freezing with liquid nitrogen
Construction dewatering and ground freezing
Professor Kamran M. Nemati. University of Washington.
“This manual was prepared by the Office of Environmental Engineering, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). The manual establishes uniform policies and guidelines to support dewatering operations on construction sites. It is neither intended as, nor does it establish a legal standard for those functions. The guidelines herein are for the information and guidance of the resident engineers and employees of the Department and its contractors…”.
Modelling of ground freezing in tunnelling
Chang-Yu Ou et al.
To prevent any possible accident as shield machines enter into vertical shafts from soil or exit fromsoil into vertical shafts, artificial ground freezing isoften conducted to form perfectly watertight between diaphragm walls and the adjacent soil. This paper presents the mechanical erformance of the artificial ground freezing applied to shield tunneling inthe construction of the Taipei MRT system…”.
Artificial Ground Freezing of Fully Saturated Soil: Thermal Problem
Roman Lackner et al.
“Freezing of water in porous media such as soil results in a change of mechanical and thermal properties. This change of properties is exploited during artificial ground freezing(AGF) employed in tunneling, during open excavations, and for retaining structures. In this paper, a phase-change model for the simulation of freezing of fully saturated soil is presented…”.
Artificial Ground Freezing: An Environmental Best Practice
Complete title: Artificial Ground Freezing: An Environmental Best Practice at Cameco’s Uranium Mining Operations in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada.
Greg Newman et al.
“Cameco Corporation (Cameco) is becoming a leader in the application of artificial ground freezing for controlling water and ground stabilization at its existing and in-development high-grade uranium mines in Canada. Artificial ground freezing (AGF) has been used in the mining industry over the past 125 years for support of shaft sinking, tunneling, and foundation excavation…”.
Artificial ground freezing in Belgium
Société Internationale de Mécanique des Sols et des Travaux de Fondations
“The ground freezing technique came up more thana hundred years ago to allow mine-shaft sinking through soft water bearing formations in Germany, France and Belgium.Belgium, more particularly, has been very active inthis field since the beginning of the century when themine-shafts in the eastern part of the country weresunk…”.